•Rwandan officials outside the mining sector need to become more actively involved with the new Mining Policy for its effective implementation.
• Minerals based industrialisation may not necessarily follow the pathways defined so far by the African Mining Vision (AMV, 2009) but still achieve its wider goals.
• A full diagnosis of the artisanal and small mines sub sector must precede interventions to influence its structure and operations. • Rwanda needs to remain steadfast to its vision of the industrialisation of the mining sector, free of donor influence.
• A regional framework must be an essential part of that Vision.
• A politically emotive argument has been prevalent in African discourse that each country should be selfsufficient: African countries need to break from this tradition in order to exploit the opportunities available in the sub region.
• A greater competitive edge may be possible through a regionally collaborative approach: This can support minerals-based industrialisation that is not limited by domestic mineral sources.
• Rwanda needs to focus on promoting the enabling environment for minerals driven industrialisation, beyond the country’s major minerals.